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Catalan/Valencian
català/valencià
Pronunciation[kətəˈla]/[valensiˈa]
Native toSpain, Andorra, France, Italy
EthnicityAragonese
Balears
Catalans
Valencians
Native speakers
4.1 million[1] (2012)
Total number of speakers: More than 10 million (L1 plus L2; 2018)[2]
Early form
Standard forms
Catalan (regulated by the IEC)
Valencian (regulated by the AVL)
Latin (Catalan alphabet)
Catalan Braille
Signed Catalan
Official status
Official language in
Recognised minority
language in
Regulated byInstitut d'Estudis Catalans
Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua
Language codes
ISO 639-1ca
ISO 639-2cat
ISO 639-3cat
Glottologstan1289
Linguasphere51-AAA-e
Domínio geolinguístico do catalão
  Territories where Catalan is spoken and is official
  Territories where Catalan is spoken but is not official
  Territories where Catalan is not historically spoken but is official
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
A speaker of Catalan (Majorcan dialect).
Artur Mas, former president of Catalonia, discussing individual identity, collective identity and language, recorded in the United States for Wikipedia.

Catalan (/ˈkætələn, -æn, ˌkætəˈlæn/;[4][5] autonym: català; Eastern Catalan: [kətəˈla]), known in the Valencian Community and Carche as Valencian, is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin. It is the official language of Andorra,[6] and a co-official language of three autonomous communities in eastern Spain: Catalonia, the Valencian Community and the Balearic Islands. It also has semi-official status in the Italian comune of Alghero.[7] It is also spoken in the Pyrénées-Orientales department of France and in two further areas in eastern Spain: the eastern strip of Aragon and the Carche area in the Region of Murcia. The Catalan/Valencian-speaking territories are often called the Països Catalans or "Catalan Countries".

The language evolved from Vulgar Latin in the Middle Ages around the eastern Pyrenees. Nineteenth-century Spain saw a Catalan literary revival,[8][9] culminating in the early 1900s.

Etymology and pronunciation

Catalan Countries (Països Catalans): (In orange, strict Catalan-speaking area) NE modern Spain (Catalonia, Valencian Community and Balearic Islands), SE. France (Roussillon, touching the Pyrenees) and Comune of Alghero (NW coast of Sardinia, an island belonging to Italy)
The Crown of Aragon in 1443. King James the Conqueror [1208–1276] dictated his autobiographical chronicles entirely in Catalan. Some of this territory nowadays makes up the Catalan Countries.

The word Catalan is derived from the territorial name of Catalonia, itself of disputed etymology. The main theory suggests that Catalunya (Latin Gathia Launia) derives from the name Gothia or Gauthia ("Land of the Goths"), since the origins of the Catalan counts, lords and people were found in the March of Gothia, whence Gothland > Gothlandia > Gothalania > Catalonia theoretically derived.[10][11]

In English, the term referring to a person first appears in the mid 14th century as Catelaner, followed in the 15th century as Catellain (from French). It is attested a language name since at least 1652. The word Catalan can be pronounced in English as /ˈkætələn/, /ˈkætəlæn/ or /ˌkætəˈlæn/.[12][5]

The endonym is pronounced [kətəˈla] in the Eastern Catalan dialects, and [kataˈla] in the Western dialects. In the Valencian Community and Carche, the term valencià [valensiˈa, ba-] is frequently used instead. Thus, the name "Valencian", although often employed for referring to the varieties specific to the Valencian Community and Carche, is also used by Valencians as a name for the language as a whole,[13] synonymous with "Catalan".[14][15] Both uses of the term have their respective entries in the dictionaries by the AVL[note 1] and the IEC.[note 2] See also status of Valencian below.

History

Homilies d'Organyà (12th century)
Fragment of the Greuges de Guitard Isarn (ca. 1080–1095), one of the earliest texts written almost completely in Catalan,[16][17] predating the famous Homilies d'Organyà by a century
Linguistic map of Southwestern Europe

Middle Ages

By the 9th century, Catalan had evolved from Vulgar Latin on both sides of the eastern end of the Pyrenees, as well as the territories of the Roman province of Hispania Tarraconensis to the south.[18] From the 8th century onwards the Catalan counts extended their territory southwards and westwards at the expense of the Muslims, bringing their language with them.[18] This process was given definitive impetus with the separation of the County of Barcelona from the Carolingian Empire in 988.[9]

In the 11th century, documents written in macaronic Latin begin to show Catalan elements,[17] with texts written almost completely in Romance appearing by 1080.[17] Old Catalan shared many features with Gallo-Romance, diverging from Old Occitan between the 11th and 14th centuries.[19]

During the 11th and 12th centuries the Catalan rulers expanded up to north of the Ebro river,[18] and in the 13th century they conquered the Land of Valencia and the Balearic Islands.[9] The city of Alghero in Sardinia was repopulated with Catalan speakers in the 14th century. The language also reached Murcia, which became Spanish-speaking in the 15th century.[20]

In the Low Middle Ages, Catalan went through a golden age, reaching a peak of maturity and cultural richness.[18] Examples include the work of Majorcan polymath Ramon Llull (1232–1315), the Four Great Chronicles (13th–14th centuries), and the Valencian school of poetry culminating in Ausiàs March (1397–1459).[18] By the 15th century, the city of Valencia had become the sociocultural center of the Crown of Aragon, and Catalan was present all over the Mediterranean world.[18] During this period, the Royal Chancery propagated a highly standardized language.[18] Catalan was widely used as an official language in Sicily until the 15th century, and in Sardinia until the 17th.[20] During this period, the language was what Costa Carreras terms "one of the 'great languages' of medieval Europe".[9]

Martorell's outstanding[18] novel of chivalry Tirant lo Blanc (1490) shows a transition from Medieval to Renaissance values, something that can also be seen in Metge's work.[18] The first book produced with movable type in the Iberian Peninsula was printed in Catalan.[21][9]

Start of the modern era

With the union of the crowns of Castille and Aragon in 1479, the use of Spanish gradually became more prestigious[20] and marked the start of the decline of Catalan.[9][8] Starting in the 16th century, Catalan literature came under the influence of Spanish, and the urban and literary classes became bilingual.[20]

With the Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659), Spain ceded the northern part of Catalonia to France, and soon thereafter the local Catalan varieties came under the influence of French, which in 1700 became the sole official language of the region.[6][22]

Shortly after the French Revolution (1789), the French First Republic prohibited official use of, and enacted discriminating policies against, the regional languages of France, such as Catalan, Alsatian, Breton, Occitan, Flemish, and Basque.

France: 19th to 20th centuries

Official Decree Prohibiting the Catalan Language in France
"Speak French, be clean", school wall in Ayguatébia-Talau, 2010

Following the French establishment of the colony of Algeria from 1830 onward, it received several waves of Catalan-speaking settlers. People from the Spanish Alacant province settled around Oran, whereas Algiers received immigration from Northern Catalonia and Menorca. Their speech was known as patuet. By 1911, the number of Catalan speakers was around 100,000. After the declaration of independence of Algeria in 1962, almost all the Catalan speakers fled to Northern Catalonia (as Pieds-Noirs) or Alacant.[23]

The government of France formally recognizes only French as an official language. Nevertheless, on 10 December 2007, the General Council of the Pyrénées-Orientales officially recognized Catalan as one of the languages of the department[24] and seeks to further promote it in public life and education.

Spain: 18th to 20th centuries

The decline of Catalan continued in the 16th and 17th centuries. The defeat of the pro-Habsburg coalition in the War of Spanish Succession (1714) initiated a series of laws which, among other centralizing measures, imposed the use of Spanish in legal documentation all over Spain.

However, the 19th century saw a Catalan literary revival (Renaixença), which has continued up to the present day.[6] This period starts with Aribau's Ode to the Homeland (1833); followed in the second half of the 19th century, and the early 20th by the work of Verdaguer (poetry), Oller (realist novel), and Guimerà (drama).[25]

In the 19th century, the region of Carche, in the province of Murcia was repopulated with Catalan speakers from the Land of Valencia.[26] The Second Spanish Republic (1931–1939) saw a brief period of tolerance, with most restrictions against Catalan being lifted.[6] Despite orthographic standardization in 1913 and the official status of the language during the Second Spanish Republic, the Francoist dictatorship banned the use of Catalan in schools and in the public administration between 1939 and 1975.[27][8] Franco's desire for a homogenous Spanish population resonated with some Catalonians in favor of his regime, primarily members of the upper class, who began to reject the use of Catalan. In addition to the loss of prestige for Catalan and the prohibition of its use in schools, migration during the 1950s into Catalonia from other parts of Spain also contributed to the diminished use of the language. These migrants were often unaware of the existence of Catalan, and thus felt no need to learn or use it. Despite all of these hardships, Catalan continued to be used privately within households, and was able to survive after the end of Franco's dictatorship.[28]

Present day

Since the Spanish transition to democracy (1975–1982), Catalan has been institutionalized as an official language, language of education, and language of mass media; all of which have contributed to its increased prestige.[29] In Catalonia, there is an unparalleled large bilingual European non-state linguistic community.[29] The teaching of Catalan is mandatory in all schools,[6] but it is possible to use Spanish for studying in the public education system of Catalonia in two situations – if the teacher assigned to a class chooses to use Spanish, or during the learning process of one or more recently arrived immigrant students.[30] There is also some intergenerational shift towards Catalan.[6]

According to the Statistical Institute of Catalonia, in 2013 the Catalan language is the second most commonly used in Catalonia, after Spanish, as a native or self-defining language: 7% of the population self-identifies with both Catalan and Spanish equally, 36.4% with Catalan and 47.5% only Spanish.[31] In 2003 the same studies concluded no language preference for self-identification within the population above 15 years old: 5% self-identified with both languages, 44.3% with Catalan and 47.5 with Spanish.[32] To promote use of Catalan, the Generalitat de Catalunya (Catalonia's official Autonomous government) spends part of its annual budget on the promotion of the use of Catalan in Catalonia and in other territories, with entities such as Consorci per a la Normalització Lingüística [ca; es] (Consortium for Linguistic Normalization)[33][34]

In Andorra, Catalan has always been the sole official language.[6] Since the promulgation of the 1993 constitution, several policies favoring Catalan have been enforced, like Catalan medium education.[6]

On the other hand, there are several language shift processes currently taking place. In the Northern Catalonia area of France, Catalan has followed the same trend as the other minority languages of France, with most of its native speakers being 60 or older (as of 2004).[6] Catalan is studied as a foreign language by 30% of the primary education students, and by 15% of the secondary.[6] The cultural association La Bressola promotes a network of community-run schools engaged in Catalan language immersion programs.

In Alicante province, Catalan is being replaced by Spanish and in Alghero by Italian.[29] There is also well ingrained diglossia in the Valencian Community, Ibiza, and to a lesser extent, in the rest of the Balearic islands.[6]

Classification and relationship with other Romance languages

Chart of Romance languages based on structural and comparative criteria (not on socio-functional ones). Koryakov (2001) includes Catalan in Occitano-Romance, distinct from Iberian Romance.[35]

One classification of Catalan is given by Pèire Bèc:

However, the ascription of Catalan to the Occitano-Romance branch of Gallo-Romance languages is not shared by all linguists and philologists, particularly among Spanish ones, such as Ramón Menéndez Pidal.

Catalan bears varying degrees of similarity to the linguistic varieties subsumed under the cover term Occitan language (see also differences between Occitan and Catalan and Gallo-Romance languages). Thus, as it should be expected from closely related languages, Catalan today shares many traits with other Romance languages.

Relationship with other Romance languages

Catalan shares many traits with the other neighboring Romance languages (Occitan, French, Italian, Sardinian as well as Spanish and Portuguese among others).[26] However, despite being spoken mostly on the Iberian Peninsula, Catalan has marked differences with the Iberian Romance group (Spanish and Portuguese) in terms of pronunciation, grammar, and especially vocabulary; showing instead its closest affinity with languages native to France and northern Italy, particularly Occitan[36][37][38] and to a lesser extent Gallo-Romance (Franco-Provençal, French, Gallo-Italian).[39][40][41][42][36][37][38]

According to Ethnologue, the lexical similarity between Catalan and other Romance languages is: 87% with Italian; 85% with Portuguese and Spanish; 76% with Ladin; 75% with Sardinian; and 73% with Romanian.[43]

Lexical comparison of 24 words among Romance languages:
17 cognates with Gallo-Romance, 5 isoglosses with Iberian Romance, 3 isoglosses with Occitan, and 1 unique word.[40][41]
Gloss Catalan Occitan (Campidanese) Sardinian Italian French Spanish Portuguese Romanian
cousin cosí cosin fradili cugino cousin primo primo văr
brother germà fraire fradi fratello frère hermano irmão frate
nephew nebot nebot nebodi nipote neveu sobrino sobrinho nepot
summer estiu estiu istadi estate été verano, estío[44] verão, estio[44] vară
evening vespre ser, vèspre seru sera soir tarde, noche[45] tarde, serão[45] seară
morning matí matin mangianu mattina matin mañana manhã, matina dimineață
frying pan paella padena paella padella poêle sartén frigideira, fritadeira tigaie
bed llit lièch, lèit letu letto lit cama, lecho cama, leito pat
bird ocell, au aucèl pilloni uccello oiseau ave, pájaro ave, pássaro pasăre
dog gos, ca gos, canh cani cane chien perro, can cão, cachorro câine
plum pruna pruna pruna prugna prune ciruela ameixa prună
butter mantega bodre burru, butiru burro beurre mantequilla, manteca manteiga unt
piece tros tròç, petaç arrogu pezzo morceau, pièce pedazo, trozo[46] pedaço, bocado bucată
gray gris gris canu grigio gris gris, pardo[47] cinzento, gris gri,[48] sur, cenușiu
hot calent caud callenti caldo chaud caliente quente fierbinte
too much massa tròp tropu troppo trop demasiado demais, demasiado prea
to want voler vòler bolli(ri) volere vouloir querer querer a vrea
to take prendre prene, prendre pigai prendere prendre tomar, prender apanhar, levar a lua
to pray pregar pregar pregai pregare prier orar orar, rezar, pregar a se ruga
to ask demanar/preguntar demandar dimandai, preguntai domandare demander pedir, preguntar pedir, perguntar a cere, a întreba
to search cercar/buscar cercar circai cercare chercher buscar procurar, buscar a căuta
to arrive arribar arribar arribai arrivare arriver llegar, arribar chegar a ajunge
to speak parlar parlar chistionnai, fueddai parlare parler hablar, parlar falar, The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
to eat The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. (The time allocated for running scripts has expired. in lunfardo; The time allocated for running scripts has expired. in slang) The time allocated for running scripts has expired. (The time allocated for running scripts has expired. in slang), The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
Catalan and Spanish cognates with different meaningsThe time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
Latin Catalan Spanish
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. "to bring closer" The time allocated for running scripts has expired. "to put to bed"
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. "to remove;
wake up"
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. "to take"
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. "to remove" The time allocated for running scripts has expired. "to bring"
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. "to search" The time allocated for running scripts has expired. "to fence"
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. "to bury" The time allocated for running scripts has expired. "to hang"
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. "wife" The time allocated for running scripts has expired. "woman or wife"

During much of its history, and especially during the Francoist dictatorship (1939–1975), the Catalan language was ridiculed as a mere dialect of Spanish.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. This view, based on political and ideological considerations, has no linguistic validity.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. Spanish and Catalan have important differences in their sound systems, lexicon, and grammatical features, placing the language in features closer to Occitan (and French).The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

There is evidence that, at least from the 2nd century a.d., the vocabulary and phonology of Roman Tarraconensis was different from the rest of Roman Hispania.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. Differentiation arose generally because Spanish, Asturian, and Galician-Portuguese share certain peripheral archaisms (Spanish The time allocated for running scripts has expired., Asturian and Portuguese The time allocated for running scripts has expired. vs. Catalan The time allocated for running scripts has expired., Occitan The time allocated for running scripts has expired. "to boil") and innovatory regionalisms (Sp The time allocated for running scripts has expired., Ast The time allocated for running scripts has expired. vs. Cat The time allocated for running scripts has expired., Oc The time allocated for running scripts has expired. "bullock"), while Catalan has a shared history with the Western Romance innovative core, especially Occitan.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

Like all Romance languages, Catalan has a handful of native words which are unique to it, or rare elsewhere. These include:

  • verbs: cōnfīgere 'to fasten; transfix' > The time allocated for running scripts has expired. 'to compose, write up', congemināre > The time allocated for running scripts has expired. 'to combine, conjugate', de-ex-somnitare > The time allocated for running scripts has expired. 'to wake; awaken', dēnsāre 'to thicken; crowd together' > The time allocated for running scripts has expired. 'to save, keep', īgnōrāre > The time allocated for running scripts has expired. 'to miss, yearn, pine for', indāgāre 'to investigate, track' > Old Catalan enagar 'to incite, induce', odiāre > OCat ujar 'to exhaust, fatigue', pācificāre > The time allocated for running scripts has expired. 'to appease, mollify', repudiāre > The time allocated for running scripts has expired. 'to reject, refuse';
  • nouns: brīsa > The time allocated for running scripts has expired. 'pomace', buda > The time allocated for running scripts has expired. 'reedmace', catarrhu > The time allocated for running scripts has expired. 'catarrh', congesta > The time allocated for running scripts has expired. 'snowdrift', dēlīrium > The time allocated for running scripts has expired. 'ardor, passion', fretu > The time allocated for running scripts has expired. 'brake', lābem > The time allocated for running scripts has expired. 'avalanche', ōra > The time allocated for running scripts has expired. 'edge, border', pistrice > The time allocated for running scripts has expired. 'fish species', prūna 'live coal' > The time allocated for running scripts has expired. 'spark', tardātiōnem > tardaó > The time allocated for running scripts has expired. 'autumn'.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

The Gothic superstrate produced different outcomes in Spanish and Catalan. For example, Catalan The time allocated for running scripts has expired. "mud" and The time allocated for running scripts has expired. "to roast", of Germanic origin, contrast with Spanish The time allocated for running scripts has expired. and The time allocated for running scripts has expired., of Latin origin; whereas Catalan The time allocated for running scripts has expired. "spinning wheel" and The time allocated for running scripts has expired. "temple", of Latin origin, contrast with Spanish The time allocated for running scripts has expired. and The time allocated for running scripts has expired., of Germanic origin.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

The same happens with Arabic loanwords. Thus, Catalan The time allocated for running scripts has expired. "large earthenware jar" and The time allocated for running scripts has expired. "tile", of Arabic origin, contrast with Spanish The time allocated for running scripts has expired. and The time allocated for running scripts has expired., of Latin origin; whereas Catalan The time allocated for running scripts has expired. "oil" and The time allocated for running scripts has expired. "olive", of Latin origin, contrast with Spanish The time allocated for running scripts has expired. and The time allocated for running scripts has expired..The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. However, the Arabic element in Spanish is generally much more prevalent.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

Situated between two large linguistic blocks (Iberian Romance and Gallo-Romance), Catalan has many unique lexical choices, such as The time allocated for running scripts has expired. "to miss somebody", The time allocated for running scripts has expired. "to calm somebody down", and The time allocated for running scripts has expired. "reject".The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

Geographic distribution

Catalan-speaking territories

The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

Traditionally Catalan-speaking territories in dark gray; non-Catalan-speaking territories belonging to traditionally Catalan-speaking regions in light gray

Traditionally Catalan-speaking territories are sometimes called the The time allocated for running scripts has expired. (Catalan Countries), a denomination based on cultural affinity and common heritage, that has also had a subsequent political interpretation but no official status. Various interpretations of the term may include some or all of these regions.

Territories where Catalan is spokenThe time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
State Territory Catalan name Notes
Andorra 23x15pxThe time allocated for running scripts has expired. Andorra The time allocated for running scripts has expired. A sovereign state where Catalan is the national and the sole official language. The Andorrans speak a Western Catalan variety.
France CataloniaThe time allocated for running scripts has expired. Northern Catalonia The time allocated for running scripts has expired. Roughly corresponding to the The time allocated for running scripts has expired. of Pyrénées-Orientales.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
Spain CataloniaThe time allocated for running scripts has expired. Catalonia The time allocated for running scripts has expired. In the Aran Valley (northwest corner of Catalonia), in addition to Occitan, which is the local language, Catalan, Spanish and French are also spoken.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
Valencian CommunityThe time allocated for running scripts has expired. Valencian Community The time allocated for running scripts has expired. Excepting some regions in the west and south which have been Aragonese/Spanish-speaking since at least the 18th century.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The Western Catalan variety spoken there is known as "Valencian".
AragonThe time allocated for running scripts has expired.
La Franja
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. A part of the Autonomous Community of Aragon, specifically a strip bordering Western Catalonia. It comprises the The time allocated for running scripts has expired. of Ribagorça, Llitera, Baix Cinca, and Matarranya.
Balearic IslandsThe time allocated for running scripts has expired. Balearic Islands The time allocated for running scripts has expired. Comprising the islands of Mallorca, Menorca, Ibiza and Formentera.
Region of MurciaThe time allocated for running scripts has expired. Carche The time allocated for running scripts has expired. A small area of the Autonomous Community of Murcia, settled in the 19th century.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
Italy Siñal d'Aragón.svg Alghero The time allocated for running scripts has expired. A city in the Province of Sassari, on the island of Sardinia, where the Algherese dialect is spoken.

Number of speakers

The number of people known to be fluent in Catalan varies depending on the sources used. A 2004 study did not count the total number of speakers, but estimated a total of 9–9.5 million by matching the percentage of speakers to the population of each area where Catalan is spoken.[49] The web site of the Generalitat de Catalunya estimated that as of 2004 there were 9,118,882 speakers of Catalan.[50] These figures only reflect potential speakers; today it is the native language of only 35.6% of the Catalan population.[51] According to Ethnologue, Catalan had four million native speakers and five million second-language speakers in 2012.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

According to a 2011 study the total number of Catalan speakers is over 9.8 million, with 5.9 million residing in Catalonia. More than half of them speak Catalan as a second language, with native speakers being about 4.4 million of those (more than 2.8 in Catalonia).[52] Very few Catalan monoglots exist; basically, virtually all of the Catalan speakers in Spain are bilingual speakers of Catalan and Spanish, with a sizable population of Spanish-only speakers of immigrant origin (typically born outside Catalonia or with both parents born outside Catalonia) The time allocated for running scripts has expired. existing in the major Catalan urban areas as well. In Roussillon, only a minority of French Catalans speak Catalan nowadays, with French being the majority language for the inhabitants after a continued process of language shift. According to a 2019 survey by the Catalan government, 31.5% of the inhabitants of Catalonia have Catalan as first language at home whereas 52.7% have Spanish, 2.8% both Catalan and Spanish and 10.8% other languages.[53]

Spanish is the most spoken language in Barcelona (according to the linguistic census held by the Government of Catalonia in 2013) and it is understood almost universally. According to this census of 2013 Catalan is also very commonly spoken in the city of 1,501,262: it is understood by 95% of the population, while 72.3% over the age of 2 can speak it (1,137,816), 79% can read it (1,246.555), and 53% can write it (835,080).[54] The proportion in Barcelona who can speak it, 72.3%,[55] is lower than that of the overall Catalan population, of whom 81.2% over the age of 15 speak the language. Knowledge of Catalan has increased significantly in recent decades thanks to a language immersion educational system. An important social characteristic of the Catalan language is that all the areas where it is spoken are bilingual in practice: together with the French language in Roussillon, with Italian in Alghero, with Spanish and French in Andorra and with Spanish in the rest of the territories.

Territory State Understand 1[56] Can speak 2[56]
 Catalonia  Spain 6,502,880 5,698,400
 Valencian Community  Spain 3,448,780 2,407,951
 Balearic Islands  Spain 852,780 706,065
CataloniaThe time allocated for running scripts has expired. Roussillon  France 203,121 125,621
23x15px Andorra 23x15px Andorra 75,407 61,975
AragonThe time allocated for running scripts has expired. La Franja (Aragon)  Spain 47,250 45,000
Siñal d'Aragón.svg Alghero (Sardinia)  Italy 20,000 17,625
Region of MurciaThe time allocated for running scripts has expired. Carche (Murcia)  Spain No data No data
Total Catalan-speaking territories 11,150,218 9,062,637
Rest of World No data 350,000
Total 11,150,218 9,412,637
1.^ The number of people who understand Catalan includes those who can speak it.
2.^ Figures relate to all self-declared capable speakers, not just native speakers.

Level of knowledge

Area Speak Understand Read Write
Catalonia[57] 81.2 94.4 85.5 65.3
Valencian Community 57.5 78.1 54.9 32.5
Balearic Islands 74.6 93.1 79.6 46.9
Roussillon 37.1 65.3 31.4 10.6
Andorra 78.9 96.0 89.7 61.1
Franja Oriental of Aragón 88.8 98.5 72.9 30.3
Alghero 67.6 89.9 50.9 28.4

(% of the population 15 years old and older).

Social use

Area At home Outside home
Catalonia 45 51
Valencian Community 37 32
Balearic Islands 44 41
Roussillon 1 1
Andorra 38 51
Franja Oriental of Aragón 70 61
Alghero 8 4

(% of the population 15 years old and older).

Native language

Area People Percentage
Catalonia 2,813,000 38.5%
Valencian Community 1,047,000 21.1%
Balearic Islands 392,000 36.1%
Andorra 26,000 33.8%
Franja Oriental of Aragon 33,000 70.2%
Roussillon 35,000 8.5%
Alghero 8,000 20%
TOTAL 4,353,000 31.2%

[58][59][60]

Phonology

The time allocated for running scripts has expired. Catalan phonology varies by dialect. Notable features include:The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

  • Marked contrast of the vowel pairs /ɛ e/ and /ɔ o/, as in other Western Romance languages, other than Spanish.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  • Lack of diphthongization of Latin short The time allocated for running scripts has expired., The time allocated for running scripts has expired., as in Galician and Portuguese, but unlike French, Spanish, or Italian.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  • Abundance of diphthongs containing /w/, as in Galician and Portuguese.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

In contrast to other Romance languages, Catalan has many monosyllabic words, and these may end in a wide variety of consonants, including some consonant clusters.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. Additionally, Catalan has final obstruent devoicing, which gives rise to an abundance of such couplets as The time allocated for running scripts has expired. "(male friend") vs. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("female friend").The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

Central Catalan pronunciation is considered to be standard for the language.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The descriptions below are mostly representative of this variety.[61] For the differences in pronunciation between the different dialects, see the section on pronunciation of dialects in this article.

Vowels

Vowels of Standard Eastern CatalanThe time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

Catalan has inherited the typical vowel system of Vulgar Latin, with seven stressed phonemes: /a ɛ e i ɔ o u/, a common feature in Western Romance, with the exception of Spanish.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. Balearic also has instances of stressed /ə/.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. Dialects differ in the different degrees of vowel reduction,The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. and the incidence of the pair /ɛ e/.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

In Central Catalan, unstressed vowels reduce to three: /a e ɛ/ > [ə]; /o ɔ u/ > [u]; /i/ remains distinct.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The other dialects have different vowel reduction processes (see the section pronunciation of dialects in this article).

Examples of vowel reduction processes in Central CatalanThe time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
The root is stressed in the first word and unstressed in the second
Front vowels Back vowels
Word
pair
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("ice")
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("ice cream")
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("stone")
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("quarry")
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("he bathes")
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("we bathe")
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("thing")
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("little thing")
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("everything")
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("total")
IPA
transcription
[ˈʒɛl]
[ʒəˈlat]
[ˈpeðɾə]
[pəˈðɾeɾə]
[ˈbaɲə]
[bəˈɲɛm]
[ˈkɔzə]
[kuˈzɛtə]
[ˈtot]
[tuˈtal]

Consonants

Catalan consonantsThe time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
Bilabial Alveolar
/ Dental
Palatal Velar
Nasal The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
Plosive voiceless The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ~ The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
voiced The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ~ The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
Affricate voiceless The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
voiced The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
Fricative voiceless The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
voiced (The time allocated for running scripts has expired.) The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
Approximant central The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
lateral The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
Tap The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
Trill The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

The consonant system of Catalan is rather conservative.

  • /l/ has a velarized allophone in syllable coda position in most dialects.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. However, /l/ is velarized irrespective of position in Eastern dialects like MajorcanThe time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. and standard Eastern Catalan.
  • /v/ occurs in Balearic,The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. Alguerese, standard Valencian and some areas in southern Catalonia.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. It has merged with /b/ elsewhere.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  • Voiced obstruents undergo final-obstruent devoicing: /b/ > [p], /d/ > [t], /ɡ/ > [k].The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  • Voiced stops become lenited to approximants in syllable onsets, after continuants: /b/ > The time allocated for running scripts has expired., /d/ > The time allocated for running scripts has expired., /ɡ/ > The time allocated for running scripts has expired..The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. Exceptions include /d/ after lateral consonants, and /b/ after /f/. In coda position, these sounds are realized as stops,[62] except in some Valencian dialects where they are lenited.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  • There is some confusion in the literature about the precise phonetic characteristics of /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /tʃ/, /dʒ/. Some sourcesThe time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. describe them as "postalveolar". OthersThe time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. as "back alveolo-palatal", implying that the characters ⟨ɕ ʑ tɕ dʑ⟩ would be more accurate. However, in all literature only the characters for palato-alveolar affricates and fricatives are used, even when the same sources use ⟨ɕ ʑ⟩ for other languages like Polish and Chinese.[63][64]The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  • The distribution of the two rhotics /r/ and /ɾ/ closely parallels that of Spanish. Between vowels, the two contrast, but they are otherwise in complementary distribution: in the onset of the first syllable in a word, The time allocated for running scripts has expired. appears unless preceded by a consonant. Dialects vary in regards to rhotics in the coda with Western Catalan generally featuring The time allocated for running scripts has expired. and Central Catalan dialects featuring a weakly trilled The time allocated for running scripts has expired. unless it precedes a vowel-initial word in the same prosodic unit, in which case The time allocated for running scripts has expired. appears.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  • In careful speech, /n/, /m/, /l/ may be geminated. Geminated /ʎ/ may also occur.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. Some analyze intervocalic [r] as the result of gemination of a single rhotic phoneme.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. This is similar to the common analysis of Spanish and Portuguese rhotics.[65]

Phonological evolution

The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

Sociolinguistics

Catalan sociolinguistics studies the situation of Catalan in the world and the different varieties that this language presents. It is a subdiscipline of Catalan philology and other affine studies and has as an objective to analyze the relation between the Catalan language, the speakers and the close reality (including the one of other languages in contact).

Preferential subjects of study

  • Dialects of Catalan
  • Variations of Catalan by class, gender, profession, age and level of studies
  • Process of linguistic normalization
  • Relations between Catalan and Spanish or French
  • Perception on the language of Catalan speakers and non-speakers
  • Presence of Catalan in several fields: tagging, public function, media, professional sectors

Dialects

The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

Overview

Main dialects of CatalanThe time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

The dialects of the Catalan language feature a relative uniformity, especially when compared to other Romance languages;The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. both in terms of vocabulary, semantics, syntax, morphology, and phonology.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. Mutual intelligibility between dialects is very high,The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. estimates ranging from 90% to 95%.[66] The only exception is the isolated idiosyncratic Alguerese dialect.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

Catalan is split in two major dialectal blocks: Eastern Catalan, and Western Catalan.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The main difference lies in the treatment of unstressed The time allocated for running scripts has expired. and The time allocated for running scripts has expired.; which have merged to /ə/ in Eastern dialects, but which remain distinct as /a/ and /e/ in Western dialects.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. There are a few other differences in pronunciation, verbal morphology, and vocabulary.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

Western Catalan comprises the two dialects of Northwestern Catalan and Valencian; the Eastern block comprises four dialects: Central Catalan, Balearic, Rossellonese, and Alguerese.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. Each dialect can be further subdivided in several subdialects. The terms "Catalan" and "Valencian" (respectively used in Catalonia and the Valencian Community) are two varieties of the same language.[67] There are two institutions regulating the two standard varieties, the Institute of Catalan Studies in Catalonia and the Valencian Academy of the Language in the Valencian Community.

Central Catalan is considered the standard pronunciation of the language and has the highest number of speakers.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. It is spoken in the densely populated regions of the Barcelona province, the eastern half of the province of Tarragona, and most of the province of Girona.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

Catalan has an inflectional grammar. Nouns have two genders (masculine, feminine), and two numbers (singular, plural). Pronouns additionally can have a neuter gender, and some are also inflected for case and politeness, and can be combined in very complex ways. Verbs are split in several paradigms and are inflected for person, number, tense, aspect, mood, and gender. In terms of pronunciation, Catalan has many words ending in a wide variety of consonants and some consonant clusters, in contrast with many other Romance languages.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

Main dialectal divisions of CatalanThe time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
Block Western Catalan Eastern Catalan
Dialect Northwestern Valencian Central Balearic Northern/Rossellonese Alguerese
Area Spain, Andorra Spain France Italy
Andorra, Provinces of Lleida, western half of Tarragona, La Franja Autonomous community of Valencia, Carche Provinces of Barcelona, eastern half of Tarragona, most of Girona Balearic islands Roussillon/Northern Catalonia City of Alghero in Sardinia

The time allocated for running scripts has expired.Pronunciation

Vowels

Catalan has inherited the typical vowel system of Vulgar Latin, with seven stressed phonemes: /a ɛ e i ɔ o u/, a common feature in Western Romance, except Spanish.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. Balearic has also instances of stressed /ə/.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. Dialects differ in the different degrees of vowel reduction,The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. and the incidence of the pair /ɛ e/.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

In Eastern Catalan (except Majorcan), unstressed vowels reduce to three: /a e ɛ/ > [ə]; /o ɔ u/ > [u]; /i/ remains distinct.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. There are a few instances of unreduced [e], [o] in some words.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. Alguerese has lowered [ə] to [a].

In Majorcan, unstressed vowels reduce to four: /a e ɛ/ follow the Eastern Catalan reduction pattern; however /o ɔ/ reduce to [o], with /u/ remaining distinct, as in Western Catalan.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

In Western Catalan, unstressed vowels reduce to five: /e ɛ/ > [e]; /o ɔ/ > [o]; /a u i/ remain distinct.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. This reduction pattern, inherited from Proto-Romance, is also found in Italian and Portuguese.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. Some Western dialects present further reduction or vowel harmony in some cases.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

Central, Western, and Balearic differ in the lexical incidence of stressed /e/ and /ɛ/.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. Usually, words with /ɛ/ in Central Catalan correspond to /ə/ in Balearic and /e/ in Western Catalan.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. Words with /e/ in Balearic almost always have /e/ in Central and Western Catalan as well.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. As a result, Central Catalan has a much higher incidence of /ɛ/.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

Different incidence of stressed /e/, /ə/, /ɛ/The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
Word Western Eastern
Majorcan Central Northern
set ("thirst") /ˈset/ /ˈsət/ /ˈsɛt/ /ˈset/
ven ("he sells") /ˈven/ /ˈvən/ /ˈbɛn/ /ˈven/
General differences in the pronunciation of unstressed vowels in different dialectsThe time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
Word Western Eastern
Northwestern Valencian Majorcan Central Northern
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("mother") /ˈmaɾe/ /ˈmaɾə/
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("song") /kanˈso/ /kənˈso/ /kənˈsu/
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("to put") /poˈza(ɾ)/ /puˈza(ɾ)/
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("iron") /ˈfɛro/ /ˈfɛru/
Detailed examples of vowel reduction processes in different dialectsThe time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
Word pairs:
the first with stressed root,
the second with unstressed root
Western Eastern
Majorcan Central Northern
Front
vowels
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("ice")
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("ice cream")
[ˈdʒɛl]
[dʒeˈlat]
[ˈʒɛl]
[ʒəˈlat]
[ˈʒel]
[ʒəˈlat]
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("pear")
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("pear tree")
[ˈpeɾa]
[peˈɾeɾa]
[ˈpəɾə]
[pəˈɾeɾə]
[ˈpɛɾə]
[pəˈɾeɾə]
[ˈpeɾə]
[pəˈɾeɾə]
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("stone")
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("quarry")
[ˈpeðɾa]
[peˈðɾeɾa]
[ˈpeðɾə]
[pəˈðɾeɾə]
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("he bathes")
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("we bathe")
Majorcan: The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("we bathe")
[ˈbaɲa]
[baˈɲem]
[ˈbaɲə]
[bəˈɲam]
[ˈbaɲə]
[bəˈɲɛm]
[ˈbaɲə]
[bəˈɲem]
Back
vowels
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("thing")
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("little thing")
[ˈkɔza]
[koˈzeta]
[ˈkɔzə]
[koˈzətə]
[ˈkɔzə]
[kuˈzɛtə]
[ˈkozə]
[kuˈzetə]
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("everything")
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("total")
[ˈtot]
[toˈtal]
[ˈtot]
[tuˈtal]
[ˈtut]
[tuˈtal]

Consonants

The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

Morphology

Western Catalan: In verbs, the ending for 1st-person present indicative is The time allocated for running scripts has expired. in verbs of the 1st conjugation and -∅ in verbs of the 2nd and 3rd conjugations in most of the Valencian Community, or The time allocated for running scripts has expired. in all verb conjugations in the Northern Valencian Community and Western Catalonia.
E.g. The time allocated for running scripts has expired., The time allocated for running scripts has expired., The time allocated for running scripts has expired. (Valencian); The time allocated for running scripts has expired., The time allocated for running scripts has expired., The time allocated for running scripts has expired. (Northwestern Catalan).

Eastern Catalan: In verbs, the ending for 1st-person present indicative is The time allocated for running scripts has expired., The time allocated for running scripts has expired., or -∅ in all conjugations.
E.g. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. (Central), The time allocated for running scripts has expired. (Balearic), and The time allocated for running scripts has expired. (Northern), all meaning ('I speak').

1st-person singular present indicative forms
Conjugation Eastern Catalan Western Catalan Gloss
Central Northern Balearic Valencian Northwestern
1st The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. 'I speak'
2nd The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. 'I fear'
3rd pure The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. 'I feel', 'I hear'
inchoative The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. or The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. or The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. 'I polish'

Western Catalan: In verbs, the inchoative endings are The time allocated for running scripts has expired./The time allocated for running scripts has expired., The time allocated for running scripts has expired., The time allocated for running scripts has expired., The time allocated for running scripts has expired./The time allocated for running scripts has expired..

Eastern Catalan: In verbs, the inchoative endings are The time allocated for running scripts has expired., The time allocated for running scripts has expired., The time allocated for running scripts has expired., The time allocated for running scripts has expired..

Western Catalan: In nouns and adjectives, maintenance of /n/ of medieval plurals in proparoxytone words.
E.g. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. 'men', The time allocated for running scripts has expired. 'youth'.

Eastern Catalan: In nouns and adjectives, loss of /n/ of medieval plurals in proparoxytone words.
E.g. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. 'men', The time allocated for running scripts has expired. 'youth' (Ibicencan, however, follows the model of Western Catalan in this case[68]).

Vocabulary

Despite its relative lexical unity, the two dialectal blocks of Catalan (Eastern and Western) show some differences in word choices.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. Any lexical divergence within any of the two groups can be explained as an archaism. Also, usually Central Catalan acts as an innovative element.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

Selection of different words between Western and Eastern Catalan
Gloss "mirror" "boy" "broom" "navel" "to exit"
Eastern Catalan The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
Western Catalan The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

Standards

The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

Casa de Convalescència, Headquarters of the Institut d'Estudis Catalans
Written varieties
Catalan (IEC) Valencian (AVL) gloss
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. English
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. to know
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. take out
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. to be born
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. pitcher
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. round
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. my, mine
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. almond
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. star
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. hit
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. lobster
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. men
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. service

Standard Catalan, virtually accepted by all speakers,The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. is mostly based on Eastern Catalan,The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. which is the most widely used dialect. Nevertheless, the standards of the Valencian Community and the Balearics admit alternative forms, mostly traditional ones, which are not current in eastern Catalonia.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

The most notable difference between both standards is some tonic ⟨e⟩ accentuation, for instance: The time allocated for running scripts has expired. (IEC) – The time allocated for running scripts has expired. (AVL). Nevertheless, AVL's standard keeps the grave accent ⟨è⟩, while pronouncing it as /e/ rather than /ɛ/, in some words like: The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ('what'), or The time allocated for running scripts has expired.. Other divergences include the use of ⟨tl⟩ (AVL) in some words instead of ⟨tll⟩ like in The time allocated for running scripts has expired./The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ('almond'), The time allocated for running scripts has expired./The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ('back'), the use of elided demonstratives (The time allocated for running scripts has expired. 'this', The time allocated for running scripts has expired. 'that') in the same level as reinforced ones (The time allocated for running scripts has expired.) or the use of many verbal forms common in Valencian, and some of these common in the rest of Western Catalan too, like subjunctive mood or inchoative conjugation in The time allocated for running scripts has expired. at the same level as The time allocated for running scripts has expired. or the priority use of The time allocated for running scripts has expired. morpheme in 1st person singular in present indicative (The time allocated for running scripts has expired. verbs): The time allocated for running scripts has expired. instead of The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ('I buy').

In the Balearic Islands, IEC's standard is used but adapted for the Balearic dialect by the University of the Balearic Islands's philological section. In this way, for instance, IEC says it is correct writing The time allocated for running scripts has expired. as much as The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ('we sing') but the University says that the priority form in the Balearic Islands must be The time allocated for running scripts has expired. in all fields. Another feature of the Balearic standard is the non-ending in the 1st person singular present indicative: The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ('I buy'), The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ('I fear'), The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ('I sleep').

In Alghero, the IEC has adapted its standard to the Alguerese dialect. In this standard one can find, among other features: the definite article The time allocated for running scripts has expired. instead of The time allocated for running scripts has expired., special possessive pronouns and determinants The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ('mine'), The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ('his/her'), The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ('yours'), and so on, the use of The time allocated for running scripts has expired. /v/ in the imperfect tense in all conjugations: The time allocated for running scripts has expired., The time allocated for running scripts has expired., The time allocated for running scripts has expired.; the use of many archaic words, usual words in Alguerese: The time allocated for running scripts has expired. instead of The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ('less'), The time allocated for running scripts has expired. instead of The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ('someone'), The time allocated for running scripts has expired. instead of The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ('which'), and so on; and the adaptation of weak pronouns.

In 2011,[69] the Aragonese government passed a decree approving the statutes of a new language regulator of Catalan in La Franja (the so-called Catalan-speaking areas of Aragon) as originally provided for by Law 10/2009.[70] The new entity, designated as The time allocated for running scripts has expired., shall allow a facultative education in Catalan and a standardization of the Catalan language in La Franja.

The time allocated for running scripts has expired. Status of Valencian

The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

Subdialects of Valencian

Valencian is classified as a Western dialect, along with the northwestern varieties spoken in Western Catalonia (provinces of Lleida and the western half of Tarragona).The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The various forms of Catalan and Valencian are mutually intelligible (ranging from 90% to 95%)[66]

Linguists, including Valencian scholars, deal with Catalan and Valencian as the same language. The official regulating body of the language of the Valencian Community, the Valencian Academy of Language (Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua, AVL) declares the linguistic unity between Valencian and Catalan varieties.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

[T]he historical patrimonial language of the Valencian people, from a philological standpoint, is the same shared by the autonomous communities of Catalonia and Balearic islands, and Principality of Andorra. Additionally, it is the patrimonial historical language of other territories of the ancient Crown of Aragon [...] The different varieties of these territories constitute a language, that is, a "linguistic system" [...] From this group of varieties, Valencian has the same hierarchy and dignity as any other dialectal modality of that linguistic system [...]

Ruling of the Valencian Language Academy of 9 February 2005, extract of point 1.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.[71]

The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

The AVL, created by the Valencian parliament, is in charge of dictating the official rules governing the use of Valencian, and its standard is based on the Norms of Castelló (Normes de Castelló). Currently, everyone who writes in Valencian uses this standard, except the Royal Academy of Valencian Culture (Acadèmia de Cultura Valenciana, RACV), which uses for Valencian an independent standard.

Despite the position of the official organizations, an opinion poll carried out between 2001 and 2004[72] showed that the majority of the Valencian people consider Valencian different from Catalan. This position is promoted by people who do not use Valencian regularly.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. Furthermore, the data indicates that younger generations educated in Valencian are much less likely to hold these views. A minority of Valencian scholars active in fields other than linguistics defends the position of the Royal Academy of Valencian Culture (Acadèmia de Cultura Valenciana, RACV), which uses for Valencian a standard independent from Catalan.[73]

This clash of opinions has sparked much controversy. For example, during the drafting of the European Constitution in 2004, the Spanish government supplied the EU with translations of the text into Basque, Galician, Catalan, and Valencian, but the latter two were identical.[74]

Vocabulary

Word choices

Despite its relative lexical unity, the two dialectal blocks of Catalan (Eastern and Western) show some differences in word choices.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. Any lexical divergence within any of the two groups can be explained as an archaism. Also, usually Central Catalan acts as an innovative element.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

Literary Catalan allows the use of words from different dialects, except those of very restricted use.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. However, from the 19th century onwards, there has been a tendency towards favoring words of Northern dialects to the detriment of others, The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

Latin and Greek loanwords

Like other languages, Catalan has a large list of loanwords from Greek and Latin. This process started very early, and one can find such examples in Ramon Llull's work.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. In the 14th and 15th centuries Catalan had a far greater number of Greco-Latin loanwords than other Romance languages, as is attested for example in Roís de Corella's writings.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The incorporation of learned, or "bookish" words from its own ancestor language, Latin, into Catalan is arguably another form of lexical borrowing through the influence of written language and the liturgical language of the Church. Throughout the Middle Ages and into the early modern period, most literate Catalan speakers were also literate in Latin; and thus they easily adopted Latin words into their writing—and eventually speech—in Catalan.

Word formation

The process of morphological derivation in Catalan follows the same principles as the other Romance languages,The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. where agglutination is common. Many times, several affixes are appended to a preexisting lexeme, and some sound alternations can occur, for example The time allocated for running scripts has expired. [əˈlɛktrik] ("electrical") vs. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. [ələktrisiˈtat]. Prefixes are usually appended to verbs, as in The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("foresee").The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

There is greater regularity in the process of word-compounding, where one can find compounded words formed much like those in English.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

Common types of word compounds in CatalanThe time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
Type Example Gloss
two nouns, the second assimilated to the first The time allocated for running scripts has expired. "banknote paper"
noun delimited by an adjective The time allocated for running scripts has expired. "military staff"
noun delimited by another noun and a preposition The time allocated for running scripts has expired. "typewriter"
verb radical with a nominal object The time allocated for running scripts has expired. "parachute"
noun delimited by an adjective, with adjectival value The time allocated for running scripts has expired. "robin" (bird)

Writing system

The word The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("novel") in a dictionary. The geminated L (The time allocated for running scripts has expired.) is a distinctive character used in Catalan.
Billboard in Barcelona (detail), showing the word The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("illusion")

The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

Main forms The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
Modified forms The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

Catalan uses the Latin script, with some added symbols and digraphs.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The Catalan orthography is systematic and largely phonologically based.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. Standardization of Catalan was among the topics discussed during the First International Congress of the Catalan Language, held in Barcelona October 1906. Subsequently, the Philological Section of the Institut d'Estudis Catalans (IEC, founded in 1911) published the Normes ortogràfiques in 1913 under the direction of Antoni Maria Alcover and Pompeu Fabra. In 1932, Valencian writers and intellectuals gathered in Castelló de la Plana to make a formal adoption of the so-called Normes de Castelló, a set of guidelines following Pompeu Fabra's Catalan language norms.[75]

Pronunciation of Catalan special characters and digraphs (Central Catalan)The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
Pronunciation ExamplesThe time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. /s/ The time allocated for running scripts has expired. [fəˈlis] ("happy")
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. /ɡ/ ([ɡ~ɣ]) before The time allocated for running scripts has expired. and The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. [ˈɡɛrə] ("war")
/ɡw/ elsewhere The time allocated for running scripts has expired. [ˈɡwan] ("glove")
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. [tʃ] in final position The time allocated for running scripts has expired. [ˈratʃ] ("trickle")
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. /ʃ/ ([jʃ] in some dialects) The time allocated for running scripts has expired. [ˈkaʃə] ("box")
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. /ʎ/ The time allocated for running scripts has expired. [ʎɔk] ("place")
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. Normatively /l:/, but usually /l/ The time allocated for running scripts has expired. [nuˈβɛlə] ("novel")
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. /ɲ/ The time allocated for running scripts has expired. [kətəˈɫuɲə] ("Catalonia")
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. /k/ before The time allocated for running scripts has expired. and The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. [ˈki] ("who")
/kw/ before other vowels The time allocated for running scripts has expired. [ˈkwatrə] ("four")
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. /s/
Intervocalic The time allocated for running scripts has expired. is pronounced /z/
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. [ˈɡɾɔsə] ("big-feminine)"
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. [ˈkazə] ("house")
The time allocated for running scripts has expired., The time allocated for running scripts has expired. [ddʒ] The time allocated for running scripts has expired. [ˈfeddʒə] ("liver"), The time allocated for running scripts has expired. [midˈdʒo] ("sock")
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. [tʃ] The time allocated for running scripts has expired. [dəsˈpatʃ] ("office")
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. [ddz] The time allocated for running scripts has expired. [ˈdoddzə] ("twelve")
Letters and digraphs with contextually conditioned pronunciations (Central Catalan)The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
Notes ExamplesThe time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. /s/ before The time allocated for running scripts has expired. and The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
corresponds to The time allocated for running scripts has expired. in other contexts
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("happy-masculine-singular") - The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("happy-feminine-plural")
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("I hunt") - The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("you hunt")
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. /ʒ/ before The time allocated for running scripts has expired. and The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
corresponds to The time allocated for running scripts has expired. in other positions
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("to envy") - The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("they envy")
final The time allocated for running scripts has expired. + stressed The time allocated for running scripts has expired., and final The time allocated for running scripts has expired. before other vowels,
are pronounced [tʃ]
corresponds to The time allocated for running scripts has expired.~The time allocated for running scripts has expired. or The time allocated for running scripts has expired.~The time allocated for running scripts has expired. in other positions
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ['bɔtʃ] ("mad-masculine") - The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ['bɔʒə] ("mad-feminine") -The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ['bɔʒəs] ("mad-feminine plural")
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. [də'zitʃ] ("wish") - The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("to wish") - The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("we wish")
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. /ɡ/ before The time allocated for running scripts has expired. and The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
corresponds to The time allocated for running scripts has expired. in other positions
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("shop") - The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("shops")
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. /ɡw/ before The time allocated for running scripts has expired. and The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
corresponds to The time allocated for running scripts has expired. in other positions
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("language") - The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("languages")
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. /k/ before The time allocated for running scripts has expired. and The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
corresponds to The time allocated for running scripts has expired. in other positions
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("cow") - The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("cows")
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. /kw/ before The time allocated for running scripts has expired. and The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
corresponds to The time allocated for running scripts has expired. in other positions
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("oblique-feminine") - The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("oblique-feminine plural")
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. [ʃ~tʃ] initially and in onsets after a consonant
[ʃ] after The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
otherwise, [ɡz] before stress, [ks] after
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. [ˈʃarʃə] ("net")
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. [ˈɡiʃ] ("chalk")
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. [əɡˈzaktə] ("exact"), The time allocated for running scripts has expired. [ˈfaks] ("fax")

Grammar

The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

The grammar of Catalan is similar to other Romance languages. Features include:The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

  • Use of definite and indefinite articles.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  • Nouns, adjectives, pronouns, and articles are inflected for gender (masculine and feminine), and number (singular and plural). There is no case inflexion, except in pronouns.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  • Verbs are highly inflected for person, number, tense, aspect, and mood (including a subjunctive).The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  • There are no modal auxiliaries.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  • Word order is freer than in English.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

Gender and number inflection

Gender and number inflection of the word The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("cat")
Regular noun with definite article: The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("the cat")
masculine feminine
singular The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
plural The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
Adjective with 4 forms:
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("green")
masculine feminine
singular The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
plural The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
Adjective with 3 forms:
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("happy")
masculine feminine
singular The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
plural The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
Adjective with 2 forms:
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("indifferent")
masculine feminine
singular The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
plural The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

In gender inflection, the most notable feature is (compared to Portuguese, Spanish or Italian), the loss of the typical masculine suffix The time allocated for running scripts has expired.. Thus, the alternance of The time allocated for running scripts has expired./The time allocated for running scripts has expired., has been replaced by ø/The time allocated for running scripts has expired..The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. There are only a few exceptions, like The time allocated for running scripts has expired./The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("scarce").The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. Many not completely predictable morphological alternations may occur, such as:The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

  • Affrication: The time allocated for running scripts has expired./The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("insane") vs. The time allocated for running scripts has expired./The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("ugly")
  • Loss of The time allocated for running scripts has expired.: The time allocated for running scripts has expired./The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("flat") vs. The time allocated for running scripts has expired./The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("second")
  • Final obstruent devoicing: The time allocated for running scripts has expired./The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("felt") vs. The time allocated for running scripts has expired./The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("said")

Catalan has few suppletive couplets, like Italian and Spanish, and unlike French. Thus, Catalan has The time allocated for running scripts has expired./The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("boy"/"girl") and The time allocated for running scripts has expired./The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("cock"/"hen"), whereas French has The time allocated for running scripts has expired./The time allocated for running scripts has expired. and The time allocated for running scripts has expired./The time allocated for running scripts has expired..The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

There is a tendency to abandon traditionally gender-invariable adjectives in favor of marked ones, something prevalent in Occitan and French. Thus, one can find The time allocated for running scripts has expired./The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("boiling") in contrast with traditional The time allocated for running scripts has expired./The time allocated for running scripts has expired..The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

As in the other Western Romance languages, the main plural expression is the suffix The time allocated for running scripts has expired., which may create morphological alternations similar to the ones found in gender inflection, albeit more rarely.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The most important one is the addition of The time allocated for running scripts has expired. before certain consonant groups, a phonetic phenomenon that does not affect feminine forms: The time allocated for running scripts has expired./The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("the pulse"/"the pulses") vs. The time allocated for running scripts has expired./The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("the dust"/"the dusts").The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

Determiners

Sign in the town square of Begur, Catalonia, Spain. In The time allocated for running scripts has expired. (literally "square of the town"), since the noun The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("town") is feminine singular, the definite article carries the corresponding form, The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("the").
Definite article in Standard Catalan
(elided forms in brackets)The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
masculine feminine
singular The time allocated for running scripts has expired. (The time allocated for running scripts has expired.) The time allocated for running scripts has expired. (The time allocated for running scripts has expired.)
plural The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
Contractions of the definite article
preposition
a de per
article el The time allocated for running scripts has expired. (The time allocated for running scripts has expired.) The time allocated for running scripts has expired. (The time allocated for running scripts has expired.) The time allocated for running scripts has expired. (The time allocated for running scripts has expired.)
els The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
Indefinite article
masculine feminine
singular The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
plural The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

The inflection of determinatives is complex, specially because of the high number of elisions, but is similar to the neighboring languages.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. Catalan has more contractions of preposition + article than Spanish, like The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("of + the [plural]"), but not as many as Italian (which has The time allocated for running scripts has expired., The time allocated for running scripts has expired., The time allocated for running scripts has expired., etc.).The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

Central Catalan has abandoned almost completely unstressed possessives (The time allocated for running scripts has expired., etc.) in favor of constructions of article + stressed forms (The time allocated for running scripts has expired., etc.), a feature shared with Italian.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

Personal pronouns

Catalan stressed pronounsThe time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  singular plural
1st person The time allocated for running scripts has expired., The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
2nd person informal The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
formal The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
respectful (The time allocated for running scripts has expired.)[76]
3rd person masculine The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
feminine The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The morphology of Catalan personal pronouns is complex, specially in unstressed forms, which are numerous (13 distinct forms, compared to 11 in Spanish or 9 in Italian).The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. Features include the gender-neutral The time allocated for running scripts has expired. and the great degree of freedom when combining different unstressed pronouns (65 combinations).The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

Catalan pronouns exhibit T–V distinction, like all other Romance languages (and most European languages, but not Modern English). This feature implies the use of a different set of second person pronouns for formality.

This flexibility allows Catalan to use extraposition extensively, much more than French or Spanish. Thus, Catalan can have The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("they recommended me to him"), whereas in French one must say The time allocated for running scripts has expired., and Spanish The time allocated for running scripts has expired..The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. This allows the placement of almost any nominal term as a sentence topic, without having to use so often the passive voice (as in French or English), or identifying the direct object with a preposition (as in Spanish).The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

Verbs

Simple forms of a regular verb of the first conjugation: The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("to bring")The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
Non-finite Form
Infinitive The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
Gerund The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
Past participle The time allocated for running scripts has expired. (The time allocated for running scripts has expired., The time allocated for running scripts has expired., The time allocated for running scripts has expired., The time allocated for running scripts has expired.)
Indicative The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
[The time allocated for running scripts has expired.]
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
[The time allocated for running scripts has expired.]
The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
[The time allocated for running scripts has expired.]
Present The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
Imperfect The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
Preterite (archaic) The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
Future The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
Conditional The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
Subjunctive The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
[The time allocated for running scripts has expired.]
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
[The time allocated for running scripts has expired.]
The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
[The time allocated for running scripts has expired.]
Present The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
Imperfect The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
Imperative The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
[The time allocated for running scripts has expired.]
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
[The time allocated for running scripts has expired.]
The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
[The time allocated for running scripts has expired.]
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

Like all the Romance languages, Catalan verbal inflection is more complex than the nominal. Suffixation is omnipresent, whereas morphological alternations play a secondary role.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. Vowel alternances are active, as well as infixation and suppletion. However, these are not as productive as in Spanish, and are mostly restricted to irregular verbs.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

The Catalan verbal system is basically common to all Western Romance, except that most dialects have replaced the synthetic indicative perfect with a periphrastic form of The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("to go") + infinitive.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

Catalan verbs are traditionally divided into three conjugations, with vowel themes The time allocated for running scripts has expired., The time allocated for running scripts has expired., The time allocated for running scripts has expired., the last two being split into two subtypes. However, this division is mostly theoretical.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. Only the first conjugation is nowadays productive (with about 3500 common verbs), whereas the third (the subtype of The time allocated for running scripts has expired., with about 700 common verbs) is semiproductive. The verbs of the second conjugation are fewer than 100, and it is not possible to create new ones, except by compounding.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

Syntax

The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The grammar of Catalan follows the general pattern of Western Romance languages. The primary word order is subject–verb–object.[77] However, word order is very flexible. Commonly, verb-subject constructions are used to achieve a semantic effect. The sentence "The train has arrived" could be translated as The time allocated for running scripts has expired. or The time allocated for running scripts has expired.. Both sentences mean "the train has arrived", but the former puts a focus on the train, while the latter puts a focus on the arrival. This subtle distinction is described as "what you might say while waiting in the station" versus "what you might say on the train."The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

Catalan names

The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

In Spain, every person officially has two surnames, one of which is the father's first surname and the other is the mother's first surname.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The law contemplates the possibility of joining both surnames with the Catalan conjunction i ("and").The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired.[78]

Sample text

Selected textThe time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. from Manuel de Pedrolo's 1970 novel The time allocated for running scripts has expired. ("A love affair outside the city").

Original Word-for-word translationThe time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. Free translation
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. I was having close to eighteen years, when I go [past auxiliary] know (=I met) I was about eighteen years old when I met
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. the Raül, at the station of (=in) Manresa. Raül, at Manresa railway station.
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The my father had died, unexpectedly and still young, My father had died, unexpectedly and still young,
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. a couple of years before, and of those times a couple of years before; and from that time
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. I keep a memory of acute loneliness I still harbor memories of great loneliness.
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The my relations with the mother My relationship with my mother
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. not had at all improved, all the contrary, had not improved; quite the contrary,
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. perhaps even they were worsening and arguably it was getting even worse
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. at step that (=in proportion as) myself I was making big (=I was growing up). as I grew up.
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. Not it was existing, not it existed never between us, There did not exist, at no point had there ever existed between us
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. a community of interests, of affections. shared interests or affection.
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. It is necessary to believe that I was seeking... a person I guess I was seeking... a person
The time allocated for running scripts has expired. in whom to center the my life affective. in whom I could center my emotional life.

See also

The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

Notes

  1. ^ The Valencian Normative Dictionary of the Valencian Academy of the Language states that Valencian is a "Romance language spoken in the Valencian Community, as well as in Catalonia, the Balearic Islands, the French department of the The time allocated for running scripts has expired., the Principality of Andorra, the eastern flank of Aragon and the Sardinian town of Alghero (unique in Italy), where it receives the name of 'Catalan'."
  2. ^ The Catalan Language Dictionary of the Institut d'Estudis Catalans states in the sixth definition of "Valencian" that, in the Valencian Community, it is equivalent to Catalan language.

The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

References

  1. ^ The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  2. ^ The time allocated for running scripts has expired. Report on the Catalan language by Plataforma per la Llengua based on recent reference sociolinguistic surveys
  3. ^ a b Some Iberian scholars may alternatively classify Catalan as Iberian Romance/East Iberian.
  4. ^ https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/Catalan
  5. ^ a b Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Wheeler 2010, p. 191.
  7. ^ The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  8. ^ a b c Wheeler 2010, pp. 190–191.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Costa Carreras & Yates 2009, pp. 6–7.
  10. ^ García Venero 2006.
  11. ^ Burke 1900, p. 154.
  12. ^ https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/Catalan
  13. ^ The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  14. ^ Lledó 2011, pp. 334–337.
  15. ^ Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua 2005.
  16. ^ Veny 1997, pp. 9–18.
  17. ^ a b c Moran 2004, pp. 37–38.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i Costa Carreras & Yates, pp. 6–7.
  19. ^ Riquer 1964.
  20. ^ a b c d Wheeler 2010, p. 190.
  21. ^ Trobes en llaors de la Verge Maria ("Poems of praise of the Virgin Mary") 1474.
  22. ^ The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  23. ^ Marfany 2002.
  24. ^ The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  25. ^ Costa Carreras 2007, pp. 10–11.
  26. ^ a b Wheeler 2005, p. 1.
  27. ^ The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  28. ^ The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  29. ^ a b c Wheeler 2003, p. 207.
  30. ^ The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  31. ^ The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  32. ^ The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  33. ^ The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  34. ^ The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  35. ^ Koryakov 2001.
  36. ^ a b Enciclopèdia Catalana, p. 632.
  37. ^ a b Feldhausen 2010, p. 4.
  38. ^ a b Schlösser 2005, p. 60f.
  39. ^ The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  40. ^ a b Jud 1925.
  41. ^ a b Colón 1993, pp. 33–35.
  42. ^ Moll 1958, p. 47.
  43. ^ The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  44. ^ a b Portuguese and Spanish have The time allocated for running scripts has expired. and The time allocated for running scripts has expired., respectively, for drought, dry season or low water levels.
  45. ^ a b Portuguese and Spanish have The time allocated for running scripts has expired. and The time allocated for running scripts has expired., respectively, for eve, or the day before.
  46. ^ Spanish also has The time allocated for running scripts has expired., and it is actually a borrowing from Catalan The time allocated for running scripts has expired.. Colón 1993, p 39. Portuguese has The time allocated for running scripts has expired., but aside from also being a loanword, it has a very different meaning: "thing", "gadget", "tool", "paraphernalia".
  47. ^ Modern Spanish also has The time allocated for running scripts has expired., but it is a modern borrowing from Occitan. The original word was The time allocated for running scripts has expired., which stands for "reddish, yellow-orange, medium-dark and of moderate to weak saturation. It also can mean ochre, pale ochre, dark ohre, brownish, tan, greyish, grey, desaturated, dirty, dark, or opaque." The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  48. ^ A 20th century introduction from French.
  49. ^ The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  50. ^ The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  51. ^ Población según lengua habitual. Datos comparados 2003–2008. Cataluña. Año 2008, Encuesta de Usos Lingüísticos de la población (2003 y 2008), Instituto de Estadística de Cataluña
  52. ^ The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  53. ^ The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  54. ^ The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  55. ^ The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  56. ^ a b Sources:
    • Catalonia: Statistic data of 2001 census, from The time allocated for running scripts has expired. [1].
    • Land of Valencia: Statistical data from 2001 census, from The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired..
    • Land of Valencia: Statistical data from 2001 census, from The time allocated for running scripts has expired. [2] The time allocated for running scripts has expired..
    • Balearic Islands: Statistical data from 2001 census, from The time allocated for running scripts has expired. [3].
    • Northern Catalonia: The time allocated for running scripts has expired. Survey commissioned by Prefecture of Languedoc-Roussillon Region done in October 1997 and published in January 1998 The time allocated for running scripts has expired..
    • Andorra: Sociolinguistic data from Andorran Government, 1999.
    • Aragon: Sociolinguistic data from Euromosaic [4].
    • Alguer: Sociolinguistic data from Euromosaic [5].
    • Rest of World: Estimate for 1999 by the The time allocated for running scripts has expired. outside the Catalan Countries.
  57. ^ The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  58. ^ Red Cruscat del Instituto de Estudios Catalanes
  59. ^ The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  60. ^ The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  61. ^ Wheeler 2005 takes the same approach
  62. ^ The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  63. ^ The time allocated for running scripts has expired.. Here Recasens labels these Catalan sounds as "laminoalveolars palatalitzades".
  64. ^ The time allocated for running scripts has expired.. Here the authors label these Catalan sounds as "laminal postalveolar".
  65. ^ See The time allocated for running scripts has expired. for more information.
  66. ^ a b Central Catalan has 90% to 95% inherent intelligibility for speakers of Valencian (1989 R. Hall, Jr.), cited in Ethnologue.
  67. ^ The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  68. ^ The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  69. ^ Decreto 89/2011, de 5 de abril, del Gobierno de Aragón, por el que se aprueban los Estatutos de la Academia Aragonesa del Catalán. BOA núm. 77, de 18 de abril de 2011
  70. ^ Ley 10/2009, de 22 de diciembre, de uso, protección y promoción de las lenguas propias de Aragón BOE núm. 30, de 4 de febrero de 2010.
  71. ^ Original full text of Dictamen 1: D’acord amb les aportacions més solvents de la romanística acumulades des del segle XIX fins a l’actualitat (estudis de gramàtica històrica, de dialectologia, de sintaxi, de lexicografia…), la llengua pròpia i històrica dels valencians, des del punt de vista de la filologia, és també la que compartixen les comunitats autònomes de Catalunya i de les Illes Balears i el Principat d’Andorra. Així mateix és la llengua històrica i pròpia d’altres territoris de l’antiga Corona d’Aragó (la franja oriental aragonesa, la ciutat sarda de l’Alguer i el departament francés dels Pirineus Orientals). Els diferents parlars de tots estos territoris constituïxen una llengua, és a dir, un mateix «sistema lingüístic», segons la terminologia del primer estructuralisme (annex 1) represa en el Dictamen del Consell Valencià de Cultura, que figura com a preàmbul de la Llei de Creació de l’AVL. Dins d’eixe conjunt de parlars, el valencià té la mateixa jerarquia i dignitat que qualsevol altra modalitat territorial del sistema lingüístic, i presenta unes característiques pròpies que l’AVL preservarà i potenciarà d’acord amb la tradició lexicogràfica i literària pròpia, la realitat lingüística valenciana i la normativització consolidada a partir de les Normes de Castelló.
  72. ^ The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  73. ^ The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  74. ^ The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  75. ^ The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  76. ^ Archaic in most dialects.
  77. ^ The time allocated for running scripts has expired.
  78. ^ article 19.1 of Law 1/1998 stipulates that "the citizens of Catalonia have the right to use the proper regulation of their Catalan names and surnames and to introduce the conjunction between surnames"

The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

Works cited

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External links

The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.The time allocated for running scripts has expired. The time allocated for running scripts has expired.

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